AUTHOR ORIGINAL
Open-Source Property: A Free Casebook
first Edition
Stephen Clowney, James Grimmelmann, Jeremy Sheff, and Rebecca Tushnet
Stephen Clowney, James Grimmelmann, Jeremy Sheff, and Rebecca Tushnet
2018  
Property Law
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Open-Source Property: A Free Casebook

Open Source Property: A Free Casebook is a free resource for instructors and students of the first-year Property Law course at American law schools, and anyone else with an interest in the subject. It is edited by:

Copyright and License Information

Open Source Property is copyright 2015-17 by Stephen Clowney, James Grimmelmann, Michael Grynberg, Jeremy Sheff, and Rebecca Tushnet. It may be reused under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. More specifically:

    • All of our contributions, including the selection and arrangement of materials and any original notes and questions, are hereby made available for reuse under the terms of the CC-BY-NC 4.0 license.
    • All excerpts from cases and statutes are public-domain and may be freely reused. All materials in which once-applicable copyrights have expired are public-domain and may be freely reused.
    • Where excerpts from books, articles, or photos have been used with permission, we have noted this in the text, footnotes, or captions. Uses other than as part of these materials may require separate permission from the copyright owners, or another justification under copyright law.
    • All other excerpts of copyrighted materials are used herein under the fair use provisions of 17 U.S.C. § 107. We think our interpretation of fair use is right, but we don’t guarantee it, and your situation may be different if you make a use other than as part of these materials.

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Build Author: Jeremy Sheff

Build Date: August 2017

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Print Edition

Table Of Contents
  • Introduction - Copyrights
  • Chapter One - Ownership
    • 1.1 - The Right to Exclude
      • 1.1.1 - Jacque v. Steenberg Homes, Inc.
      • 1.1.2 - State of New Jersey v. Shack
      • 1.1.3 - Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title II, Section 201
      • 1.1.4 - Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Section 302-03
    • 1.2 - Other Rights of Ownership
      • 1.2.1 - Eyerman v. Mercantile Trust Co.
    • 1.3 - So What Is Property?
      • 1.3.1 - Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld, Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning
      • 1.3.2 - Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld, Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning
      • 1.3.3 - Thomas W. Merrill & Henry E. Smith, What Happened to Property in Law and Economics?
      • 1.3.4 - Henry E. Smith, Property as the Law of Things
  • Chapter Two - Subject Matter of Property
    • 2.1 - Introduction
      • 2.1.1 - Hinman v. Pacific Air Transport
    • 2.2 - Property in Persons
      • 2.2.1 - The Amistad
      • 2.2.2 - Emancipation and Compensation
      • 2.2.3 - Owning Labor
      • 2.2.4 - Alternatives To Property
      • 2.2.5 - Body Parts
    • 2.3 - Intangible Property
      • 2.3.1 - Kremen v. Cohen
      • 2.3.2 - United States v. Turoff
    • 2.4 - Intellectual Property
  • Chapter Three - Allocation
    • 3.1 - Initial Allocation of Chattels
      • 3.1.1 - Pierson v. Post
      • 3.1.2 - Ghen v. Rich
      • 3.1.3 - Popov v. Hayashi
    • 3.2 - Allocation of Land
      • 3.2.1 - William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England
      • 3.2.2 - Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
      • 3.2.3 - William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England
      • 3.2.4 - John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government
      • 3.2.5 - Herman Melville, Moby-Dick
      • 3.2.6 - Johnson v. M’Intosh
      • 3.2.7 - Mabo v. Queensland (No. 2) [“Mabo’s Case”]
    • 3.3 - Ratione Soli and Fugitive Resources: When Chattels Meet Land
      • 3.3.1 - Wild Animals on Owned Land
      • 3.3.2 - Other Fugitive Resources: Water, Oil, and Gas
    • 3.4 - Allocation of Intangibles
      • 3.4.1 - Tribune Co. v. Oak Leaves Broadcasting Station
  • Chapter Four - Property Torts and Crimes
    • 4.1 - Real Property
    • 4.2 - Personal Property
      • 4.2.1 - The Major Common-Law Property Torts: A Summary
  • Chapter Five - Found and Stolen Property
    • 5.1 - Armory v. Delamirie
    • 5.2 - Other Variations on Armory
    • 5.3 - McAvoy v. Medina
  • Chapter Six - Adverse Possession
    • 6.1 - Adverse Possession Rationales
      • 6.1.1 - Tieu v. Morgan
    • 6.2 - “Hostility” and Intent
      • 6.2.1 - Cahill v. Morrow
      • 6.2.2 - Dombkowski v. Ferland
    • 6.3 - Finer Points of Adverse Possession Law
    • 6.4 - Adverse Possession of Chattels
      • 6.4.1 - O’Keeffe v. Snyder
      • 6.4.2 - The New York Mess
  • Chapter Seven - Bailments and Liens
    • 7.1 - Allen v. Hyatt Regency-Nashville Hotel
    • 7.2 - Williams v. Ford Motor Credit Co.
    • 7.3 - M&I Western State Bank v. Wilson
  • Chapter Eight - Improvers and Good-Faith Purchasers
    • 8.1 - Wetherbee v. Green
    • 8.2 - Uniform Commercial Code §§ 2-312, 2-403
    • 8.3 - Kotis v. Nowlin Jewelry, Inc.
    • 8.4 - Note on Negotiability
  • Chapter Nine - Estates and Future Interests
    • 9.1 - Introduction
    • 9.2 - Concepts, Vocabulary, and Conventions
    • 9.3 - Basic Estates and Future Interests
      • 9.3.1 - The Fee Simple Absolute
      • 9.3.2 - The Life Estate
      • 9.3.3 - The Reversion
      • 9.3.4 - The Remainder
    • 9.4 - Construing Ambiguous Grants
      • 9.4.1 - In the Estate of Dalton Edward Craigen
    • 9.5 - Present vs. Future: The Doctrine of Waste
      • 9.5.1 - Jackson v. Brownson
      • 9.5.2 - A Note on Ameliorative Waste
  • Chapter Ten - More Complex Estates Problems: Strategy and Method
    • 10.1 - Step 1: Building A Chronology
    • 10.2 - Step 2.a.i: Parsing a Conveyance
    • 10.3 - Step 2.a.ii: Identifying Legal Interests
      • 10.3.1 - Identifying the Quantum of an Interest
      • 10.3.2 - Identifying the Nature of an Interest
      • 10.3.3 - Possessory Estates vs. Future Interests
      • 10.3.4 - Reviewing Familiar Interests
    • 10.4 - Step 2.a.iii: Identifying Residual Interests
    • 10.5 - Step 2.b: Construing the Effects of Events on Legal Interests
    • 10.6 - Step 3: Building a Chain of Title
    • 10.7 - Other Estates and Future Interests
      • 10.7.1 - Remainders, Part 2: Vested and Contingent Remainders
      • 10.7.2 - Remainders, Part 3: Alternative Contingent Remainders
      • 10.7.3 - The Defeasible Fees
      • 10.7.4 - Remainders, Part 4: Divestment of Future Interests; Types of Vested Reminders
    • 10.8 - Future Interests Summary and Review
  • Chapter Eleven - Preserving Marketability
    • 11.1 - Ford v. Allen
    • 11.2 - Wills v. Pierce
    • 11.3 - Smedley v. City of Waldron
  • Chapter Twelve - Trusts and Corporations
    • 12.1 - Trusts
      • 12.1.1 - Note on Trusts
      • 12.1.2 - Rothko v. Reis (In re Estate of Rothko)
    • 12.2 - Corporations
      • 12.2.1 - Walkovszky v. Carlton
  • Chapter Thirteen - Co-ownership and Marital Property
    • 13.1 - Types of Co-Ownership: Introduction
      • 13.1.1 - U.S. v. Craft
    • 13.2 - Tenancy in Common
      • 13.2.1 - Rights and Duties of Tenants in Common
      • 13.2.2 - Partition
    • 13.3 - Joint Tenancy
      • 13.3.1 - Creating a Joint Tenancy
      • 13.3.2 - Severance of a Joint Tenancy
    • 13.4 - Marital Interests
      • 13.4.1 - Tenancy by the Entirety
      • 13.4.2 - Community Property
  • Chapter Fourteen - Leasing Real Property
    • 14.1 - The Dual Nature of the Lease
    • 14.2 - Creating the Leasehold
      • 14.2.1 - A Lease or Something Else?
      • 14.2.2 - Types of Leasehold
      • 14.2.3 - The Problem of Holdovers
      • 14.2.4 - Tenant Selection
    • 14.3 - Exiting a Lease
      • 14.3.1 - Landlord Exit: Transfer
      • 14.3.2 - Tenant Exit: Transfer
      • 14.3.3 - Tenant Exit: Limiting the Right to Transfer
      • 14.3.4 - Tenant Exit: Abandonment and the Duty to Mitigate
      • 14.3.5 - Tenant Exit: Eviction
      • 14.3.6 - Tenant Exit: Security Deposits
    • 14.4 - The Quest for Clean, Safe, and Affordable Premises
      • 14.4.1 - The Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment
      • 14.4.2 - The Implied Warranty of Habitability
      • 14.4.3 - Retaliatory Eviction
      • 14.4.4 - Landlord’s Tort Liability
      • 14.4.5 - Gentrification & Rent Control
    • 14.5 - Wrapping Up
      • 14.5.1 - Residential Rental Agreement and Contract
  • Chapter Fifteen - Gifts
    • 15.1 - Intent
    • 15.2 - Delivery
      • 15.2.1 - In re Estate of Evans
      • 15.2.2 - Gruen v. Gruen
    • 15.3 - Acceptance
    • 15.4 - Irrevocability of Gifts and Exceptions
      • 15.4.1 - Gifts causa mortis.
      • 15.4.2 - Conditional gifts
    • 15.5 - Review Problems
  • Chapter Sixteen - Wills and Intestacy
    • 16.1 - Lon L. Fuller, Consideration and Form
    • 16.2 - John H. Langbein, Substantial Compliance with the Wills Act
    • 16.3 - Stevens v. Casdorph
    • 16.4 - Maryland Code, Estates and Trusts, §§ 3-101 to 3-104
  • Chapter Seventeen - Land Transactions
    • 17.1 - Indiana Code Title 32, Art. 21
    • 17.2 - Harding v. Ja Laur
    • 17.3 - Walters v. Tucker
    • 17.4 - Loughran v. Kummer
    • 17.5 - New York Real Property Law § 258
    • 17.6 - McMurray v. Housworth
    • 17.7 - Engelhart v. Kramer
    • 17.8 - Brush Grocery Kart, Inc. v. Sure Fine Market, Inc.
  • Chapter Eighteen - Foreclosures and the Mortgage Crisis
    • 18.1 - Introduction: What is a Mortgage?
    • 18.2 - Crystals and Mud in Property Law
      • 18.2.1 - Carol M. Rose, Crystals And Mud In Property Law
    • 18.3 - The Rise of Mortgage Securitization
      • 18.3.1 - Adam J. Levitin, The Paper Chase: Securitization, Foreclosure, and the Uncertainty of Mortgage Title 1
    • 18.4 - Predatory Lending
      • 18.4.1 - McGlawn v. Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission
    • 18.5 - The Mortgage Crisis
    • 18.6 - Foreclosure Abuses
      • 18.6.1 - Klem v. Washington Mutual Bank
    • 18.7 - Chain of Title Problems
      • 18.7.1 - U.S. Bank National Association, trustee vs. Antonio Ibanez
      • 18.7.2 - Note on Subsequent Purchasers
    • 18.8 - An Additional Puzzle Piece: The Mortgage and the Note
    • 18.9 - What Now?
    • 18.10 - Concluding Thoughts
  • Chapter Nineteen - Recording Acts
    • 19.1 - Carol M. Rose, Crystals And Mud In Property Law
    • 19.2 - Argent Mortgage Co. v. Wachovia Bank N.A.
    • 19.3 - Fla. Stat. § 695.01
    • 19.4 - N.C. Stat. § 47-18
    • 19.5 - Alaska Stat. § 40.17.080
    • 19.6 - Hartig v. Stratman
    • 19.7 - Board of Education of Minneapolis v. Hughes
    • 19.8 - Adam J. Levitin, The Paper Chase: Securitization, Foreclosure, and the Uncertainty of Mortgage Title
    • 19.9 - Note on Recording Systems and Informal Title
  • Chapter Twenty - Nuisance
    • 20.1 - The Problem of Nuisance Definition
      • 20.1.1 - Puritan Holding Co. v Holloschitz
    • 20.2 - Adjudicating Nuisance
      • 20.2.1 - Sans v. Ramsey Golf & Country Club, Inc.
      • 20.2.2 - Note on the Clarity of Rights and Coase
    • 20.3 - Remedies
      • 20.3.1 - Boomer v. Atlantic Cement Co.
      • 20.3.2 - Note on “Property Rules” and “Liability Rules”
      • 20.3.3 - Spur Industries, Inc. v. Del E. Webb Development Co.
  • Chapter Twenty-one - Zoning
    • 21.1 - Euclidean Zoning
      • 21.1.1 - The Euclid Decision and Its History
      • 21.1.2 - Euclidean Zoning Theory
      • 21.1.3 - How Zoning Works (and Doesn’t)
      • 21.1.4 - Two examples.
    • 21.2 - Nonconforming Uses, Variances and Exceptions
      • 21.2.1 - Nonconforming uses
      • 21.2.2 - Variances
      • 21.2.3 - Special exceptions and zoning amendments
  • Chapter Twenty-two - Easements
    • 22.1 - What is an easement?
    • 22.2 - Creating Easements
      • 22.2.1 - Express easements
      • 22.2.2 - Implied Easements
      • 22.2.3 - Prescriptive Easements
      • 22.2.4 - Irrevocable Licenses
    • 22.3 - Transferring Easements
    • 22.4 - Terminating Easements
    • 22.5 - Negative Easements/Conservation Easements
    • 22.6 - Public Use Rights
      • 22.6.1 - Lawrence v. Clark Cnty.
      • 22.6.2 - Matthews v. Bay Head Imp. Ass’n
  • Chapter Twenty-three - Restrictive Covenants
    • 23.1 - Introduction
      • 23.1.1 - Tulk v. Moxhay
    • 23.2 - Creation of an Enforceable Restrictive Covenant
      • 23.2.1 - Neponsit Prop. Owners’ Ass’n v. Emigrant Indus. Sav. Bank
      • 23.2.2 - Restatement (Third) of Property (Servitudes)
      • 23.2.3 - Shelley v. Kraemer
    • 23.3 - Modification and Termination of Covenants
      • 23.3.1 - El Di, Inc. v. Town of Bethany Beach
  • Chapter Twenty-four - Common-Interest Communities
    • 24.1 - In General
      • 24.1.1 - Homeowners Associations
      • 24.1.2 - Condominiums
      • 24.1.3 - Cooperatives
    • 24.2 - Rulemaking Authority
      • 24.2.1 - Hidden Harbour Estates, Inc. v. Norman
      • 24.2.2 - Nahrstedt v. Lakeside Village Condominium Assoc., Inc.
    • 24.3 - Enforcement of Rules and Covenants by Common-Interest Communities
      • 24.3.1 - 40 West 67th Street v. Pullman
  • Chapter Twenty-five - Takings
    • 25.1 - Rationales
    • 25.2 - “Public Use”
      • 25.2.1 - Kelo v. City of New London, Conn.
    • 25.3 - Eminent Domain Operations
    • 25.4 - Just Compensation
    • 25.5 - Regulatory Takings
      • 25.5.1 - Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon
      • 25.5.2 - Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. City of New York
    • 25.6 - “Wipeouts”
      • 25.6.1 - Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council
    • 25.7 - Intellectual Property
    • 25.8 - Exactions
      • 25.8.1 - Dolan v. City of Tigard
      • 25.8.2 - Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management Dist.

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